Holberton School and The Low-Level Algorithms
The memory and the processes
Every time that you run a program on your PC,
matlab, the executable or binary file and the variables must be loaded, the question is where.
Many people think that they are in the R.A.M. But it’s not totally correct, because sometimes they are loaded on the disk. It could be something new to you but take it easy. I’m not crazy. In this entry, I’m going to use an example to illustrate what happens with the memory of a process when you execute a binary file.
Every time that you run a program or a binary file, the OS creates an instance. It has an
ID associated and you can see its value with the program
ps. You can use the flag
ps -A to see all the processes.
We are going to use this process id
PID to identify our program.
If we want to know how the memory works. First, we need a simple program. Our «hello world».
This binary must have some features:
- It has to allocate some memory (we need something in the heap).
- It has to show the
PIDand the memory allocated.
- And let’s include a counter and a sleep for better visualization.
#include <string.h> /* strdup */
#include <unistd.h> /* sleep, getpid */
#include <stdio.h> /* printf *//**
* main - simple program which shows
* the PID and allocated memory
* Return: 0
int counter; msg = strdup("Welcome to Holberton");
pid = getpid();
counter = 0;
printf("[%d] %4d: %s\n", pid, counter++, msg);
OK, now let's create the file, compile it with
gcc and execute it as
The output of the program was:
 0: Welcome to Holberton
 1: Welcome to Holberton
 2: Welcome to Holberton
 1: Welcome to Holberton
 2: Welcome to Holberton
It printed the
PID, a counter and
Welcome to Holberton every second. But as you can see, the
68830. This was because every time that the binary was executed, it created a new process.
OK, we have our program running, and we have its
PID. The next step is to check what has been generated. This information can be found here. In the directory
But what is proc?
The proc file system acts as an interface to internal data structures in the
kernel. It can be used to obtain information about the system and to change
certain kernel parameters at runtime (sysctl)[source].
We are going to work with the process
2724 and this is a screenshot of what the
/proc/<PID> directory has inside:
Here, there are some interesting files, links, and directories. let’s check some of them:
fd/: This directory contains the file descriptors that define the
stdin(1), stdout(2), stderr(3). If you want to check the output or input of your process, this is the place.
mem: It is the virtual memory’s content of the process. This is what we want to hack.
maps: It shows the distribution of the virtual memory as human-readable information.
status: This file contains all the human-readable information of the process
PID, PPID, NAME, UID, GROUPS, etc.
environ: This file has the environment variables of the process.
cmdline: This file has the arguments of the program.
cwd/: This is a symbolic link to the current directory of the program.
root/: This is another symbolic link, but it is pointing to the program’s root directory, normally
But now we are going to focus on virtual memory.
Let’s meet maps and mem
Let’s check what
maps has inside with the
$ cat maps
Let’s understand the map
- This image shows the distribution of the virtual memory of the process
- Each line is a section of memory. You can see where
vsyscallstart and end.
- The lower memory is at the top and the higher memory is at the bottom.
- The lowest address is at
0x55996bb15000and the highest is at
- For example. We want to know what is happening in the
heap. So it starts at
0x55996d276000and ends at
0x55996d297000, which correspond to a length of
132KiBor 132 kilo-binary bytes.
- It has read and write permissions (
rw-p). This is useful for hacking the
maps describes the virtual memory’s distribution like an index and
mem file has its content.
Now that we are on the same page. Let’s dive into
mem file with the program
$ sudo cat mem
cat: mem: Input/output error
Error!! (Don’t you love when the terminal is so dramatic?) If we try to see it, the program will show us an
Input/Ouput error. This could be a problem because the
cat tries to read whole the file. And only part of the file has read permissions. So, we need a program that can show us an isolated section of the file.
Say hi to my little xxd
Here is when the
xxd enters the scene. This program can dump an isolated section of a binary file translated into hexadecimal format.
First, let’s check these options:
- seek (
-s): it will seek an offset of the binary. This is perfect if we only want to see the heap section. The syntax is
- len (
-l): it will make the program stop after reading
lenbytes or octets (8 bits). The syntax is
So, we only need a start point and a length. We can find this information in the
Read the heap
First, Let’s check the heap location with
cat maps | grep heap:
$ cat maps | grep heap
55996d276000-55996d297000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [heap]
The output shows that the heap starts at
0x5..76000 and ends at
0x5..97000. So the length is
$((-0x5..76000 + 0x5..97000)).
Second, I’m going to send the output to the
less command for an easy visualization:
$ sudo xxd -s 0x55996d276000 -l $((-0x55996d276000+0x55996d297000)) mem | less
After some scrolling, we’ll found the memory allocated and the output message in the address
Third, Let’s change the world!
Edit with dd
Now, if we want to edit the running memory we need:
- A program that can skip the forbidden memory.
- To edit byte by byte in
This program is
It can convert a file, which is what we want. now let’s see some flags:
- Output file (
of=): this flag sets the output file, in our care, it’s
memfile. Our syntax is
- Buffer size (
bs=): this flag sets the read/write size, we have to set it in
1to prevent writing outside of the memory allocated. Our syntax is
- Conventions (
conv=): by default
ddtruncates the output but we don’t want to lose information. So we need to include the flag
notrunc. Our syntax is
conv=notrunc(for more information check this link).
- Seek (
seek=): it will skip
Nobjects at the output. We want to change the file from the allocated memory. But watch out! It must be an integer. Our syntax is
Now that we have all this information. Let’s convert the address of
int. There are many ways. But in this example, we are going to use Python
python3 -c "print(int(<hex-num>))".
$ python3 -c "print(int(0x55996d2762a0))"
Now that we have the integer value for the
seek option, let’s apply it to the code.
$ printf "Welcome to Bogota :)" | sudo dd of=mem conv=notrunc seek=94117449654944 bs=1
20+0 records in
20+0 records out
20 bytes copied, 0.000119827 s, 167 kB/s
Here in the image, the left window is running the eternal program
Welcome to Holberton. And on the right window, we are replacing the
mem information with
Welcome to Bogota :).
In this example, it was shown that:
- A process is an instance of a binary file executed.
- A process has an id associated or
- The process information is located in the
/procdirectory has information about every process: arguments, environment variables, file descriptors, virtual memory.
/proc/<PID>/mapsfile shows the virtual memory distribution.
/proc/<PID>/memfile shows the content of the virtual memory for the process.
/proc/<PID>/memfile has sections and it needs an offset for writing or reading.
- And if you want to know about virtual memory, check my other post ;).
Nataly and Melany for your help, your patience and your advices